Each tooth consists of a dental crown, a dental neck and dental roots.
In a healthy set of teeth, only the crown is visible. The root is located under the gums and anchored in the jawbone by the periodontium. The transitional area between the crown and root is referred to as the neck of the tooth.
The visible part of the tooth is protected on the outside by the dental enamel. The enamel is the hardest material of the human body. In the root area, a thin layer of dental cement protects the tooth.
The dentin forms the main mass of the tooth. It resembles bone tissue but is structurally more susceptible to acids and bacteria than enamel. Together with the cement, the dentin encases and protects the sensitive interior of the tooth, the pulpa.
The pulpa’s task is to nourish the tooth. In addition, the pulpa is a signalling and warning organ when it comes to thermal, toxic and infectious stimuli; the pulpa is able to react with pain.